History of Internet: The history of the Internet is, in part, a series of opportunities missed, said by James Surowiecki.
The internet has become a cornerstone of modern life. We use it for buying what we need and want, talking to family and friends, running businesses, meeting new people, watching films and TV, etc. In brief, a new era was born in the history of mankind.
The industrial revolution was the last example of this kind of systemic transition. But the transition to industrialized societies took hundreds of years, unlike the Digital Revolution that occurred in less than half a century. This rapid transition, though, only shows how much the web changes the way we live.
In the 1950s the internet began as a small project financed by the government. But you’ve always wondered how these humble beginnings brought in international connectivity?
Read a detailed summary of internet history, if you have.
Internet Statistics: 2019
The invention of the internet and the hard work of many people took almost 50 years. Here is a snapshot of how we are today:
History of Internet Part 3: The Internet’s Early Years
They tend to think of the 1990s when many of us think of the Internet. But this was when the internet became popular, not when it was invented. The internet has been in development since the 1950s, although its early form was a mere shell of what it would eventually become.
Wide Area Networking and ARPA (the 1950s and 1960s)
For the internet to become popular, we first needed computers, and while the first computers date back to the 17th and even the 16th century, the first digital, programmable computers were introduced in the 1940s. In the 1950s, computer scientists started connecting computers in the same building. By creating the Local Area Networks and instilling people into the Internet.
In 1958 US Secretary of Defense Neil McElroy signed Defense Directive 5105.15 establishing an Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA). To create a long-distance communication system that was not dependent on telephone lines and wires that were susceptible to attack because of the tensions created during the Cold War.
In 1958 the US Secretary of Defense Neil McElroy signs the Department of Defense Policy 5105.15. For the creation of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). To create a long-distance communication system. That does not rely on telephone lines. And wires susceptible to attack because of tensions created during the Cold War.
Because of how much that concept resembles the internet today, some chose to name Licklidler as the “father of the internet”, even though it was the hard work of many hundreds or even tens of hundreds that created and introduced the network.
First Networks and Packet Switching (the 1960s)
In 1965, MIT researchers Lawrence Roberts and Thomas Merrill connected a computer in Massachusetts to one computer in California. Using a low-speed telephone line, also used to link machines and to allow contact with each other. The first-ever Wide Area Network (WAN) is credited with this link.
But while both men could make the machines speak to each other. It became clear at once that the telephone system used at the time wasn’t able to handle communications between two computers efficiently. And reinforced the need to develop a technology known as packet switching, That was to make data faster and more secure.
In 1966 Roberts, recruited to realize Licklider’s dream of a “galactic network” by Robert Taylor. He was the new head of ARPA (then called DARPA). By 1969, the early architecture of the network, ARPAnet, had been developed. And researchers could link one computer at Stanford and one computer in UCLA and communicate via the packets switch. While messages were primitive. Immediately afterward, Santa Barbara has added to the network in 1969 also, computers at the University of Utah and the University of California. The ARPAnet would grow over time and act as the basis for the internet we now have.
Certain models, however, were developed in France such as in the University of Michigan Merit Network and the Robert CYCLADES Network. Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury from the United Kingdom’s National Physics Laboratory (NPL) have also created a similar network based on packet switching and numerous other Web implementations are under construction in various research workshops worldwide. In the end, these researchers ‘ joint research work led to the first internet versions.
History of Internet and The Internet Protocol Suite (the 1970s)
The different academic community and research disciplines created their computer networks throughout the rest of the 1960s and early 1970s in the interests of better communication among their members. This meant that the internet not only expanded but also multiple internet versions that existed independently of each other.
Scientists, particularly Robert Kahn from DARPA and Vinton Cerf of Stanford University, began to look at the potential for so many different computers communicating over the network and created a website that consisted of a transmission control protocol and an Internet protocol, also known as TCP / IP. The first time the term “Internet” was used as the implementation of this definition. The term internetworking was short-sighted, which represents the original purpose of the internet: to connect several computer networks.
The main function of TCP / IP was to shift the responsibility for reliability away from the network and to the host by using a common protocol. This implies that every machine may contact any other device, irrespective of the network to which it belonged. It allowed many more computers to connect, making the development of networks far closer to the Internet we now have. By 1983, TCP / IP had become the mainstream ARPAnet protocol, which unified the Internet. The ARPAnet was however less important from this point on until it was decommissioned officially in 1990.
History of Internet Part 2: Mainstreaming the Internet
By the middle of the 1980s, Internet development and the advent of TCP / IP were at the forefront of mainstream technology. To do this, major collaboration was, however, necessary to ensure that the various parties working to develop the Internet, on the same page and worked to achieve the same goal.
The first move was to shift responsibility to another government agency to handle the development of the internet. All of them played an important role in internet growth in the USA, NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The NSF developed NSFNET by 1986 as the backbone for a computer network based on TCP/IP.
This backbone designed to connect different supercomputers in the United States and support the higher education community’s Internet needs. In turn, the Internet spread worldwide, in Europe, Australia and Asia, via TCP / IP networks. Nevertheless, only a small community of users, especially government and academic researchers, had access to the Internet at this time. The internet was too much of a premium, though, and this exclusivity shifted.
Internet Service Providers (the Late 1980s)
At the end of the 1980s, several private computer networks developed for commercial applications, which were primarily for the Internet, which offered primarily electronic mail services. The world launched in 1989 became the first commercial ISP in the USA.
In 1992, in the United States, instead. Congress expanded access to the NSFNET, which made it much easier for the public and academic networks to connect to those already in use. This led to the introduction of the NSFNET as the Internet’s primary backbone. The main components of the now near-global internet infrastructure, instead, were commercial access points and exchanges.
The World Wide Web and Browsers (Late 1980s-early 1990s)
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee of the ENEC (CERN) created a world-wide-web, also called “the Network” on the Internet. Documents linked via hypertext links, stored in the World Wide Web and accessed over a web browser found by URLs and stored in net-servers. The first web browser, the World Wide Web, developed by Berners-Lee and many others came out early, with Mosaic being the best known, which later became Netscape in 1993.
The 1993 release of the Mosaic browser caused a major increase in the number of internet users, primarily because it allowed internet access from regular home or office computers. In 1994, the founder of Mosaic launched Netscape Navigator, which was the first fully mainstream web browser, along with Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Netscape was one of many early web players to grow rapidly and fall as quickly as the successful Browser Wars which caused Netscape to fail and Microsoft to triumph. Most people use this story to show the ruthlessness of the business practice in Bill Gates, but this “war” between Netscape and Microsoft, no matter what you think of the man, helped shape the early days of this Internet.
Besides enabling access to the internet from any computer, another reason why browsers and the global web were so important for the internet’s growth that they allowed not only text but also images to transmit. The Internet’s popularity for the average person has increased and its growth rapidly increased.
History of Internet Part 3: The Internet Takes Over
By the mid-1990s, the Internet era, officially started and since then, both the number of users and its impact on society had grown. Yet, in the years leading up to the millennium, the Internet as we know it today remains fundamentally different from the Internet.
Growth of the Internet
In 1995 any limitation on commercial internet use was removed, and the number of users worldwide grew rapidly. Most specifically, about 16 million people connected to the internet in 1995. There were nearly 300 million by 2000 and more than one billion by 2005. There are currently about 3.4 billion users worldwide.
Most of this development has occurred in North America, Europe, and East Asia, however. The internet is largely due to economic and technical problems already affecting large sections of Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa as well as SubSaharan Africa. Many have believed the internet would worsen worldwide inequality because chances given by access to the web for some are denied to others.
Nevertheless, on the other side of the coin, these regions are ready to grow rapidly. East Asia had relatively small Internet users in 2000, but now this area is the majority of the world’s internet users, although much of this is because of China’s rapid industrialization and its middle-class growth.
The Internet Goes Faster
Computers had to connect to a telephone line to access the internet in its early years. This form of the link was sluggish and problem-causing. It has limited the number of people who were able to access the Internet from a particular connection.
As a result, the public started requesting fast Internet connections that could carry more data shortly after the internet became popular. The solution was broadband Internet with cable and DSL connections, and it soon became the standard. In 2004 a high-speed service was available half the world’s internet users. The vast bulk of the Internet today
The implementation of the concept called “Web 2.0” was another major driver of web development. It represents an internet version in which people play a more active role in Web content creation and distribution, which we now call “social media.”
There is, however, a dispute about whether web 2.0 varies from the original web definition. Social media grew up next to the Internet-in 1997 Six Degrees launched its first social media website. But regardless of the side of the issue, the increase of social media websites such as MySpace and Facebook has certainly helped to turn the internet into its cultural cornerstone.
The growth of mobile technology is perhaps the biggest reason the internet has become today. Early cellular telephones allowed the internet, but they were slow and modifiable. The 2007 Apple iPhone gave people the first mobile navigation experience they have had on a phone, and 3 G wireless networks were fast enough to allow email and web browsing.
Also, the WiFi technology, invented in 1997, improved steadily throughout the 2000s to make it easier for more and more devices to connect to the Internet without cable connection and to make the internet even more widely available.
There is now almost everywhere free WiFi and 4 G wireless networks connect people to the mobile Internet with speeds that rival the traditional Internet connections, enabling people to access the internet anytime and anywhere they like. We will soon be using 5 G networks to speed up and lower latency. However, more significantly maybe, 5 G will allow more devices to connect to the network, which means more intelligent devices and much wider Internet comprehension.
History of Internet Part 4: An Eye on The Future of the Internet
While the internet idea dates back to the 1950s, it became a popular concept only in the 1990s. It has since become an important part of our lives and the trajectory of human history has been rewritten. So, what’s next after all that fast growth?
Most people described the global growth as the next phase in Internet history. As the world’s economies keep growing, the Internet the use of the Internet is increasing. This should contribute to the continued growth of the total number of internet users worldwide, constrained only by infrastructure development and government policies.
Another regulation of this kind, which can have a dramatic impact on the Internet’s role in our lives, is net neutrality. To maintain the Internet as an equal forum for freely exchanging information, net neutrality forbids ISPs from offering exclusive access to sites choosing to pay for it. The case against net neutrality is that certain outlets, including YouTube and Netflix, have far more bandwidth than others, and ISPs feel that they should be able to charge for this greater use.
Read more about the Future of the Internet: Global Internet: 60 Mini Satellites launched by SpaceX
Nonetheless, net neutrality advocates argue that this form of arrangement would allow big companies and organizations to take the lead in rising internet equality. Net Neutrality under the administration of Obama, adopted by the FCC in the United States in 2015. But that principle had repealed in 2018. Nothing substantial has changed at present, but only time will show how this shift in policy impacts the internet.
The censorship issue is another issue that may affect the Internet. Internet users all over the world, often limited to the information available to people, particularly in China. These policies had not enforced in other parts of the world, especially in the US and Europe.
Nevertheless, some corporations-especially Facebook-are acting in an age of fake news and social media to slightly reduce what people can say on the internet. In general, this is an attempt to restrict the dissemination of expression and other negative messages, but it is a gray area that has characterized debates about freedom of speech for most of the past and is still at the forefront of discussions on the internet for years to come.
The Internet has helped to bring about a new age in the history of humanity and we are just beginning to realize how this impacts our life. This talks about the rapid nature of change in our modern world and highlights how much progress will intensify as we move forward. The fact that the huge cultural transition took place in under half a century.